Intellectuals of the universalist kind as they have existed since the Enlightenment can exist no more. The generalists fall somewhere between the two extremes of narrow expertise and total universality, a position that is now impossible given the complexity that the world has attained. It is not only that social conditions are against artists, writers, and intellectuals as these were known in the past, but the very existential conditions on which life is led and death is confronted militate against any such ambitions. The differentiation of intellect from intelligence in general was an issue already raised some time ago by Richard Hofstadter in the course of his study of the ever increasing anti-intellectualism of American life, especially as evidenced by the changes taking place in educational theory and practice. The intellectuals also encountered difficult conditions, but these were such that they encouraged prospective intellectuals to fight them and try to overcome them.