The new life of the complaint mechanism coincided with particular changes in the political life of Russia. In essence, the complaint mechanism reflects processes of legal modernization insofar as legal modernization involves the principle of separation of powers, the value of an independent judiciary, and the principle of the rule of law. The success of the modernization of the complaint mechanism itself can be measured by how well its pre-modern features are overcome and how well it can be coordinated with adherence to general principles of democracy. Primary questions about the ability of the complaint mechanism to modernize and about its compatibility with processes of legal modernization arose from observations of the contemporary modification of the mechanism. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.