Much of the research on China in the West falls within the modernization discourse, with a scrupulous adherence to objectivity and little or no comment made on preferred directions for China's future. Research within China, by contrast, has been largely phrased within a classical Marxist framework, though the use of Marxist terminology is often perfunctory, even ceremonial. Many middle-aged and younger faculty have spent their whole adult lives in one institution, due to a practice in place since the 195Os whereby universities mainly appoint their own graduates to faculty positions. Much research on Chinese education has been done by political scientists, whose explanations of educational policy and practice tend to link them very closely to the major struggles over social, political, and economic policy of factions within the Communist party. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.