Summary: After World War II, global events, particularly the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union, directly affected American schools. As a result of the Cold War, the federal government became more involved in controlling the schools to meet national goals. This chapter will discuss: Youth unemployment: Universal military service and the GI Bill; Establishment of the National Science Foundation; Military deferments to channel youth into college; Sorting youth: Scholastic Aptitude Test and Educational Testing Service; Cold war: Anticommunism in schools; The War on Poverty of the 1960s; Sesame Street.