Listening and thinking are the skills that inform what one say next. Directive reflection: client-centred, solution-/strengths-based response. Empathise with the desire to spend time with friends, normalise this for him. This is behaviour reinforcement, a solution-focused and client-centred way of connecting with him. Traditional confrontational base, informed by ideas of defence mechanisms including denial and minimising informs this challenge of his view of what friendship is about. Selective reflection: client-centred base, simple reflection to encourage engagement and demonstrate empathy. Confrontation: traditional confrontational base/psychoanalytic: challenge his denial and minimise the trouble with his drinking and also possible resistance to change. Open question directed towards emphasising the need to change, reinforcing goals of social drinking and staying out of trouble as positive and attainable goals. Reflection of feeling to engage Al and demonstrate a positive connection. Informed by crisis theory one is looking to see if learned from the crisis and if so how that has changed them.