The aim of this chapter is to consider the range of issues and challenges children in care and leaving care may face. The chapter begins by reiterating the importance of informal social support for children and young people alongside dedicated formal social support. The different care contexts children and young people can be accommodated within are outlined. Following this, relevant literature and research relating to the socio-emotional needs of children in care and leaving care is reviewed. The range of themes includes an emphasis on the diversity of care experiences over the life course, the importance of coping and the problem of stigma. We also discuss research on outcomes in key areas of life including education, mental health, well-being and behaviour. Other important themes focus on the additional challenges young people in care face in relation to managing their dual identity, preparing to transition out of care and having professional services involved in their lives. Overall, this chapter shows that care can be a challenging experience for young people and the impact of negative experiences can be lifelong. However, care can also be a haven and a success for children and young people. We argue in the conclusion that those involved in supporting young people in care – directly or indirectly – have a significant role to play in building up the odds for successful outcomes.