This chapter explores the criticality of soil in thinking about the production and eating of food, and about the human relationship to Earth. It looks at the issue of global soil depletion and degradation in relation to modern agricultural practices. It also examines the issue of land-use and the planetary consequences of using increasing amounts of land for agricultural purposes. Conversely, it explores ways in which soil is viewed as sacred in the history of the sustainable agriculture movement by examining the work of some of its central thinkers, including Rudolf Steiner, Liberty Hyde Bailey, and George Washington Carver. It also considers how many spiritual traditions, Western and non-Western, view soil in sacred terms, and, as a consequence, can contribute to the development of restorative farming techniques.