ABSTRACT

The introduction of digital forms of cartography in the second half of the twentieth century, along with the intense growth and improved availability of spatial data, has yielded the opportunity to support mapping with computer models. Automated cartography has fueled the production of millions of maps in this way, to assist both with the production of carefully designed map products and the display of temporary or dynamic maps that appear on computer screens. A fundamental problem with any initial attempt to work on traditionally human endeavors in a digital environment is the need to devise strict, operational, and objective rules. The term cybercartography, or web mapping, first appeared during the rise of the Internet in 1997 at an International Cartographic Association conference. Crowdsourced mapping has received a great deal of attention in contemporary scholarly literature. The field of critical cartography is nuanced and complex.