Focusing on a new line of biblical criticism, this introductory chapter sketches out philosophical views of epistemology, the unique task of philosophical criticism in biblical studies, and how this investigation intends to examine the biblical texts for epistemological content. Unique challenges to the task include: the presumption that ancient Semitic texts are not interested in epistemology, defining a rigorous enough method for identifying and analyzing texts, and establishing why the Pentateuch and Mark’s gospel make an apropos case for thinking about a biblical epistemology writ large.