Ibadis (whites) were a moderate madhhab (school) of the Kharijite sect who had survived the defeat of the more extreme ‘Azraqite’ Kharijite sect in Iraq in 699 CE. The Kharijite center in Basra, Iraq, then became the center of an extensive network of Ibadite propagandists—hamalat al-‘ilm (transmitters of learning). As with other Kharijite-inspired sects, Iba-dites made head way only on the fringes of the caliphal lands where the sect’s leadership and common goal often helped coalesce otherwise fissiparous ‘‘tribal identities.’’ In the later eighth century until the end of the ninth century, Ibadites maintained an independent imamate in ‘Uman (Oman). There was a brief ‘Umani Ibadite resurgence in the eleventh century and the development of an Ibadi madhhab (theological school), and ‘Umani activity in Indian Ocean trade led to the establishment of Ibadi colonies on the East African coast. During the seventeenth century, Ibadite Omanis became a considerable force in the Indian Ocean.