This chapter explores why some question the existence of grand strategy. It discusses states and other political actors nevertheless act purposefully at the grand strategic level. The chapter also explores some of the factors that underpin successful action in this arena and reflects on points to consider when interpreting them. The art of strategy goes beyond the immediate problems of winning wars. A wide range of social, economic, political, and cyberspace-based factors help determine which political communities overcome their opponents and thrive. Those who criticise the concept of grand strategy note that the process by which states and other large political institutions make policy is inevitably plagued by contradictions. No single leader can personally manage all of a country’s strategically relevant activities. Perhaps the most widely recognised factor influencing grand strategy is geography. The fact that most of strategy involves material things means that it matters where those things are.