This chapter focuses exclusively on medieval Jewish civilization, from the fall of the Roman Empire to about 1492. It includes alphabetically organized entries, written by scholars from around the world, include biographies, countries, events, social history, and religious concepts. Jewish law and life are dependent upon education. The Bible is replete with commandments and precepts regarding education, and the Hebrew word for education, ?iynukh, has its origin in the Bible: "instruct the youth according to his way"; the same root has the meaning "dedicate". Education in Muslim countries, where the majority of Jews lived in the medieval period, included not only Hebrew, Bible, and Talmud but also the whole range of secular learning and even religious subjects studied by Muslim pupils. Jewish children learned either in a school attached to, or part of, the synagogue or in a private school, which was often the house or rented room of a teacher.