The purpose of Chapter 8 is to investigate deeply rooted environmental challenges in Brazil. It begins by considering how the environment and landscape have been historically constructed, showing why these constructions are important for understanding contemporary contexts. It then moves on to examine issues of environmental degradation in Brazil, showing important links with processes of globalization and capitalist development. Brazil’s rich history of environmental activism is also explored, showing why international activists have struggled in many cases to connect with Brazilian activists. Contemporary questions of energy production and deforestation are also considered, making connections between Brazilian history, current networks of globalization, and future concerns such as political responses to global climate change.