ABSTRACT

This chapter traces the developments through a century in which the position of Croatia as a state shifted repeatedly, yet state policies and practices toward Croats abroad exhibited substantial continuity. Between 1867 and 1914, when the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, Croatia was not a distinct territorial entity; ethnic Croats were spread through the region and came under several governments. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes became reality in December 1918, at the end of a war in which Croatian emigrants had largely supported the "old country" in economic, humanitarian, and political terms. In order to attract foreign capital, Yugoslavia implemented the economically liberal prescriptions followed by other European nations. In 1948, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FNRJ) broke its ties with the Soviet Union by refusing to comply with Stalin's leadership and insisting on taking its own route toward socialism. In the early 1970s, political and economic crises led to changes in Yugoslav policy toward workers temporarily employed abroad.