This chapter explores how, in the Croatian context, the use of diasporic language by the state produces, and rationalizes a new category of citizens to be governed. It provides detailed analysis of the policy and discussion of the 1990s in Croatia with three main repertoires, which draw both on Yugoslav and international blueprints. The chapter explains how the homeland's attempts to control diasporic institutions failed, and how after a brief moment of unity, organizations returned to symbolic and material competition for the representation of the "diaspora" and its relationship with the homeland. However, the biological and demographic hopes for diasporic return are tightly knit with the hopes for the economic development created by returning Croats. Other institutions approached the diaspora question differently. With the new government, the Emigrant Foundation of Croatia (Matica iseljenika Hrvatske, MIH) was renamed the Croatian Heritage Foundation (Hrvatska Matica Iseljenika, HMI).