In Czechoslovakia, development under the antediluvian methods of management was bound to run aground in terms of technological level, with a consequent loss in competitiveness. This naturally had its effect on living standards. The first point to be noted is that both nominal and real wages have shown a substantially steeper upward movement in other countries. Prices in Austria and West Germany rose, but Czechoslovakia's neighbors kept their lead in real wages as well. Czechoslovakia's homes are also badly equipped; the country is behind in ownership of refrigerators and that of private automobiles. About 44 percent of Czechoslovak citizens live in overcrowded homes, which means, by the Czechoslovak standard, that in such dwellings there are less than eight square meters per person. Alongside the housing crisis, the high employment rate among women undoubtedly contributes to this unfortunate state of affairs.