This chapter discusses the considerations that have driven Yemen and Ethiopia, two such reluctant customers, to source from Pyongyang. North Korea's contribution to Ethiopian defence development involved hundreds of military advisers, who equipped, trained, supervised Ethiopian militias and special forces, and participated in the war against Somalia. By the end of the Cold War, Ethiopia had also received battle tanks, armoured personnel carriers, and artillery and corresponding munitions from Pyongyang. Yemen has had warm relations with North Korea since before its unification in 1990. Unified Yemen maintained the relationship, requesting ballistic missiles, naval assistance, continued help with ammunition and small-arms production, and provision of man-portable air-defence systems (MANPADS). Military contracts with North Korea create notable friction in those relationships, and Washington has repeatedly emphasised that continued defiance of UN sanctions will erode its patience and generosity. Ethiopia lamented its reliance on North Korean machines, spare parts and some services crucial for the operation of its arms factories.