Chapter twelve looks at income security, beginning with retirement income. As life-spans after retirement increased, governments took on the role of providing income for the aged via state pensions or compulsory social insurance schemes. These tax-based arrangements typically pay-out more than they receive in revenue, making them difficult to sustain as populations continue age. Even then, their pay-outs are usually modest, and significantly less than the alternative, savings-based accumulation schemes that grow retirement assets over time. The twentieth-century big government model assumed that the state directly or indirectly was the best provider of health, education and income security. But these goods turned out to be expensive and increasingly costly over time. An alternative is to replace defined-benefit publically-administered systems with government-mandated self-organizing schemes. The most notable example is government-backed individual savings accounts for retirement income, health, education. When individuals and households make key saving and spending decisions, the effect is to increase autonomy, self-reliance, mutuality, and responsibility while underwriting good general standards of living and high levels of productivity.