This chapter presents third step of the training manager's job. All problems that come to the training function are performance problems; that is, what they have in common is that there is a gap between required performance and potential performance. The chapter also presents two case histories using the performance problem analysis questionnaire. In the light of these two cases, there are a number of non-training measures which ought to be looked at before a decision is made to train. The measures can be summarized like changes in the environment; redesign of equipment and redesign of forms; reallocation of tasks, job enrichment, methods improvement; changes in the reward structure; changes in the information flow; changes in management style or personnel; provision of performance aids and improvement of selection methods and selection criteria. These non-training measures have been lumped together under the slightly flippant heading 'The Prevention of Instruction', in the sense that they reduce or simplify the need for training.