This chapter presents fourth step of the training manager's job. Taking the Training Problem as Redefined - discussed the performance gap and the performance that is or will be required of them on the job. Target Population Analysis may be concerned with two populations, the people already doing the job, and the trainees coming into the firm. As soon as people start to discuss task analysis, the specification of the tasks which make up the job or jobs for which the target population are to be trained, they run up against confusion and disagreement about the meanings of words. When a job has been analysed out into tasks and sub-tasks, in suitable detail, it is sometimes possible to see what training is needed without further work. For this, some or all of the tasks must receive a performance analysis. Procedural performances are analysed with check lists, preferably illustrated, with notation of the points and nature of difficulty.