Cristoforo Buondelmonti, author of the immensely popular Liber Insularum Archipelagi, was a Florentine priest who, following a humanistic preparation in Florence, spent much time on Rhodes between about 1414 and about 1431. Buondelmonti praised Rhodes as the most agreeable of all Mediterranean islands. His ‘longer’ version discussed the city, quoting ancient authors and etymologies. Buondelmonti’s ‘shorter’ version introduced various additions and changes with respect to the earlier ‘longer’ version. Outside the city walls were the churches of Saint Anthony, Saint Stephen and Saint Kalinikos, this last lying to the east, while also to the east was the leprosy of Saint John. In Florence Buondelmonti had been in contact with some of the leading humanist scholars of his time and his studies and observations were devoted especially to ancient monuments and remains. Many places had ancient or Byzantine origins or remains whether or not they had Hospitaller fortifications when Buondelmonti visited them.