In numerous Western industrial democracies, party membership, in both absolute and relative terms, has been shrinking. Angelo Panebianco suggests that if organizational complexity increases with increase in party size then a decline in party size should lead to a corresponding decline in complexity. "A political organization must be judged by its efficiency in securing victory for the fundamental principles for which the Party stands". In the 1960s, significant developments within political parties led to predictions by scholars that changes in party organization and membership were in the offing. One critical concern of Robert Michels is the problem of participation within the political party as it becomes more hierarchical and complex. The level of participation may be affected by organizational complexity. It is logical to posit that increasing levels of organizational complexity may not be conducive to participation of members.