This chapter analyses the changing meaning of neutrality and argues that neutrality, although practised differently by each neutral state, is applied in a unique way in Ireland. It demonstrates that Swedish, Finnish and Austrian neutrality has been extensively modified to allow both European Union membership and co-operation with North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The development of neutrality as a legitimate option in time of war was hindered by the unfavourable attitude of belligerents towards the status of neutrality. The chapter raises a number of questions to be addressed. First, the extent to which neutrality has been a constraining factor on Ireland. Second, the continued compatibility of neutrality with developments in the security architecture particularly the objective of common defence in the Union. Third, the level of Irish engagement vis-a-vis that of the other neutrals and Fourth, the public conception of neutrality in Ireland.