This chapter examines the reasons for the peculiar nature of Irish neutrality, outlines the factors shaping Ireland's attitudes to neutrality and the extents to which the policy has changed during the period under question. It traces the origins of neutrality, how it was maintained during World War Two and how Ireland has conducted the international relations, with principal reference to the United Nations. The chapter examines the European Union (EU) dimension and its impact on domestic policy in order to assess the effect of integration on neutrality and the extents to which Ireland has been able to influence developments within the EU. Prior to the Maastricht treaty Ireland adopted a flexible approach; political integration must be accompanied by a similar degree of economic integration. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the extent to which Ireland had begun to redefine the neutrality policy by 1992.