This chapter assesses the rapidly changing European security setting, tracing the forces pushing the debate forward and their effect on Ireland. The debate on the Amsterdam Treaty was conducted primarily in terms of neutrality although the wording of the proposed amendment to the Constitution necessary to ratify Amsterdam proved to be a controversial issue. After the Amsterdam Treaty was signed it might have been expected that the debate on Europe's security and defence policy would have taken a back seat so as to allow for the implementation and testing of the new Common Foreign and Security Policy arrangements. The outcome of the referendum on the Amsterdam Treaty therefore gives the government locus standi to be fully involved in European Union (EU) security co-operation as it is currently constituted thereby strengthening the government's domestic position against opponents of EU security cooperation.