Across Europe, the process of policy change has been beset by developments along two dimensions. The first, or vertical dimension, refers to the shifting levels of policy authority and influence between international, national, regional and even local levels of government or administration. The second, or horizontal dimension, refers to the shifting competencies of policy actors and agencies arising as a consequence of new interpretations of government’s role in the organization and administration of public policy. The so-called ‘Europeanization’ of state policy processes, associated with the increasing involvement of the EU in domestic policy is central to both dimensions of policy change. The transnational policy cooperation encouraged and facilitated by the European Union policy making framework, combined with EU initiatives to increase its accountability and legitimacy through direct cooperation with policy partners at national, regional and local levels not only raises important questions about the shifting levels of policy authority, but also about the changing configuration of key policy making actors and agencies at each level.