The Understand phase is the first phase after the launch of a BPM activity and is required to obtain sufficient information and metrics to innovate the processes. This chapter covers the key steps to be completed to understand the current situation, the key challenges, pain points and risks. The Understand phase will also validate the current process reality within the organization and define improvement priorities within the project scope. It will assist in determining changes, if indeed changes to process(es) are necessary. In Understand phase, the main communication activities relate to providing information to the stakeholders and people within the organization about the project, its objectives and how and when people will be involved in the Understand phase. Business process metrics are critical for the Understand phase. The major purpose of collecting the metrics during the Understand phase is to enable the establishment of a baseline for comparative purposes within the Innovate phase, which informs the business case.