The People phase deals with the people and organization design aspects of the Target Operating Model (TOM). It is crucial to ensure that the new processes are understood and executed correctly. This chapter covers role descriptions and role responsibilities; people capabilities; and organization structure. It determines the supporting policies and performance measures. People phase is about ensuring that people are better placed, supported and motivated to be more productive and increasing employee engagement and satisfaction. The People phase is a crucial phase in any business process management (BPM) process implementation, and unless it is handled thoroughly and to a high standard, the rest of the project will be put at risk. The People phase will determine the people aspects of the TOM while the People Change Management essential will focus on making the transition to the TOM, including the cultural aspects.