This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book analyses the extent to which the promotion of competition was an appropriate policy goal in the privatisation of British Rail. It aims to set out to critically evaluate the evolution, outcome and future prospects of the policy adopted to liberalise British Railways’s market and to examine the translation of neoliberal political philosophy into practical policy measures. The book reviews the future prospects for competition developing between passenger train operators in the British railway industry. The lack of on-rail competition in the new railway industry might be regarded as a major disappointment in policy making terms given that a fundamental aim of New Opportunities for the Railways was to promote it. The book addresses the third objective of reviewing the future prospects for competition developing between passenger train operators in the British railway industry.