This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book considers the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) historical and political context and analyses the extent to which the definitions, visibility and benefits granted to victims of the Khmer Rouge within the ECCC are influenced by a myriad of heterogeneous actors pursuing goals. It explores how political and legal elites have produced and legitimised certain narratives of victimisation, how these actors have shaped responses to those victimisations and what considerations have influenced those determinations. The book also considers how the ECCC and its civil party system were viewed by the participants themselves. It highlights the various factors that have influenced the growth of the victims' rights movement in domestic criminal justice settings and traces the growth of a multitude of victimological theories, including positivist, radical, feminist and state crime victimologies.