This chapter aims to illuminate the meaning of "international environmental equity". It defines "international environmental equity" as a fair and just distribution among countries of benefits, burdens, and decision-making authority associated with international environmental relations. Many principles of equity will be applicable to international environmental politics depending on the issues and the actors involved. Environmental changes can impose conditions on persons and communities that preclude them from exercising their autonomy. Environmental issues, more than any others, are compelling governments and diplomats the world over—including those of the affluent countries—to seriously consider international equity. Environmental change and closely related requirements for sustainable development and poverty eradication in the developing world have pushed equity back onto the global political agenda. International environmental equity is about all countries—especially the rich developed countries in their relations with the poor developing countries—given serious consideration to fairness and justice in global environmental politics.