The main theme of this chapter is Filipino nationalism as a political ideology, and the relationship between it and national identity or the national imaginary.1 As we saw in the previous chapter, the conceptualisation and themes of the centennial celebrations betrayed the organisers’ doubt about the very notion of a Filipino national identity. This is not a new or unusual anxiety: for many years, a strong undercurrent of concern that Filipinos are insufficiently attached to the imaginary nation has run through almost all discourse on identity. This belief usually underpins an associated one that the lack of a strong sense of national belonging and attachment has held and continues to hold the country back economically, politically and culturally.