The Turkish Model was initially designed by Ataturk between 1923–1938. In the 1990s Turkish experience in economic transformation and the market economy constituted other characteristics of the Turkish Model. The West, including the US, supported and promoted the Turkish Model to the Turkic Republics. Western and US decision-makers declared on several occasions that the Turkish Model was an ideal path for the newly independent Muslim Republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia. Turkish 'Avrasya TV' started to broadcast to the Turkic Republics. Turkish help was also important in the field of religion as Turkey wanted to export its model of moderate Islam. In 1994, Russia signed several agreements with the Turkic Republics and Russian bases reopened in the region. In contrast to initial expectations, instead of using Turkey as a mediator, the Turkic Republics realised that they could establish direct relations with the West and the US.