This chapter examines ethical issues relating to biodiversity from several perspectives, including that of science versus religion. It considers the role of developments in economics as they pertain to the debate about ethics generally and an ethics of biodiversity more specifically. The chapter explains the distinction between “low-level” ethical norms, which relate to whether one considers species to have intrinsic or instrumental value, and “top-level” ethical norms that relate to the more fundamental ground motives that govern people’s lives. The top-level norms are shown to be important to the development of appropriate economic policies, including ones to preserve biodiversity. The chapter reviews the main arguments concerning the biocentric and anthropocentric approaches to the protection of nature and biodiversity. It considers whether science and religion are in conflict, because, if they are, then the prospects of achieving compromise on a universal earth ethic is in jeopardy.