This chapter examines the challenges to the theory and practice of democracy posed by certain dimensions of the broader multidisciplinary debate about the concept of biodiversity and its implications. For the most part, political philosophers have asked how concerns about the conservation of biodiversity can be expressed in the language of contemporary theories of justice, not how well democratic theory can accommodate the demands of biodiversity. The chapter argues that, even if the conservation of biodiversity is not a problem of justice, the conservation of biodiversity still has considerable implications for democratic theory. Convergent procedural democracy and fair procedural democracy reflect very different ways of thinking about democratic government. Fundamental to convergent procedural democracy is the proposition that democratic governance is driven by an emphasis on the common good or public interest. Convergent procedural democracy holds that the valid scope of democratic decision making is restricted to concern for the public interest.