Since the mid-1990s prevention has become very topical and it was translated into state policies. It has become clear that the prevention of violent conflicts is in every case far cheaper than any so-called humanitarian intervention. Budgets for conflict-prevention measures and for the peaceful settlement of disputes are still infinitesimal compared with the high costs of military intervention. Since then 'conflict prevention'—correct term: violence prevention—became part of the official policy of many states, supra-states and international organizations. It took the 'Rwanda shock' to bring about a change in attitudes regarding prevention amongst the political classes and multilateral organizations. The Amsterdam Appeal for the promotion of conflict prevention, issued in February 1997 and directed at the European Union, called for a coherent programme of action to prevent war and violence. Demands made by the parties to the conflict were worked into a politically viable shape and then implemented within the framework of a reform of the constitution and of state structures.