Invoking the right to self-determination may lead to ethno-national and secessionist conflicts. Since 1948 repressive state action caused ethno-nationalism and secession; protracted and bloody intra-state wars were the well known consequences. The French republic carries a heavy burden of responsibility in the Rwandan apocalypse. The conflict could have been overcome by the forces in the region itself and with the assistance of international experts such as Sahnoun. The growing military imbalance is the single greatest threat to global peace and security. The UN millennium summit 2000 declared that 'security begins with prevention' of deadly conflicts. In the wake of the world's 50 ongoing conflicts a new concept of security need a new understanding of global threats and risks. The nation-state, the mother of world disorder, will have transformed or disappeared for a good part, and so will have most violent conflicts, interstate and intra-state alike.