At one time, a project was distinguished from a programme by saying projects created outputs, but programmes create outcomes. Programme management is needed when the extent and type of work makes it untenable to manage all the work as a series of project stages within a single project. A business portfolio manager is at least one step further removed from the real work than a programme manager. Four different approaches are commonly used to depict a programme, all of which are different viewpoints on a programme’s plan: network; schedule; outcomes and benefits; list. Programmes are set up to realize outcomes and benefits. For this reason, a time-based (schedule) view on when outcomes will be delivered and benefits realized is needed. Lists can be powerful and for a programme sponsor or manager, having a list of the component parts of the programme is a simple yet effective way of keeping control.