Types of Institutions
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Types of Institutions book
This chapter describes the various types of institutions that exist in CHina, and focuses on Chinese government structures or, more generally, virtually all types of "official" or "formal" structures. The analysis of institutions centres on government relations with the Chinese Communist Party, and especially the lesser-known "service units" which can be classed as semi-government by being attached to government units. Some of the issues - especially the ambiguity between dual (public and commercial) roles - are common to many semi-government institutions. The chapter highlights discipline, underpinned by a hierarchical system, increases the capacity for Chinese officials to make and implement policies and plans. The hierarchical systems are also in a state of flux. Indeed, various leaders have called for the abolishment of the system in institutions not directly related to government and the Party.