Agricultural policy in the European Union (EU) is primarily concerned with the incomes of farmers, as are the national policies of most industrialised countries. Incomes can be looked at from two standpoints, and each at two levels. The first approach is to view income as the reward for a productive activity–farming. The second approach to income is to consider personal incomes, a view that covers the broader flow of resources to farmers that can be spent on consumption goods or saved. The absence of adequate information on the incomes of farmers does not stop agricultural policy from being implemented. Rather, it means that decision-makers have a very imperfect picture against which to operate. Macroeconomic indicators relating to the agriculture branch of the economy are often quoted as if they were adequate proxies for the aggregate personal incomes of farmers. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book.