This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the previous chapters of this book. Although the passage of the Competition Bill attracted attention, for much of the time of writing this book the spotlight tended to be on the planning rather than the competition component. The great 'in or out of centre' debate rolled ever onwards, the associated, equally controversial, problem of 'food deserts' gained higher profile, and planning stayed firmly in the public eye. With the visions of possible price wars there came also prophecies of consequential mergers (even to the extent of a 'rash of merger activity across Europe'). If our existing urban areas are to be renewed an approach along the lines of the Rogers report seems inescapably necessary. Retail policy as an application of both competition and planning policy is but one strand in overall urban and social policy.