The analysis must now be extended in a number of directions. In the previous chapter, methods were derived for measuring the benefits of a change in the costs of using a transport network to those actually using it. In any application it will be necessary to take into account the costs to operators, government, or other agencies, of bringing about the change in question and also the interests of any other groups, not themselves users of the transport system, who experience benefit or loss as a result of the changes being studied. In the first two sections of this chapter, therefore, we will be concerned with enlarging the scope of the basic measure to include this wider range of effects. We then go on to consider whether the measure of benefit so obtained encompasses the full range of costs and benefits resulting from a change in the transport system. Finally, the question of the distribution of whatever benefits or costs arise between the various individuals or groups affected is considered.