Conflicts over marine and coastal common resources are abundant, and with the global drive to achieve sustainable development, are only likely to increase. Now is the time for an intervention. However, we often don’t fully understand why such conflict arises; there are many diverse interests at play in the marine environment and as such there are likely to be a range of causes of contestation. Appropriate governance of the marine environment must consider how to address this conflict if we are to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals as set by the United Nations. This chapter introduces the topic and problem of interest, details the methods used to address the problem, and provides an overview of what the book will cover.