This chapter explores how people can move from the general concepts to the actual estimates of compensation required by the courts. It discusses an economic valuation techniques now include the ability to quantify a wide range of "nonuse" values as well as the more traditional "use" values. The chapter argues an economic valuation is based firmly upon human preferences. Proponents of deep ecology, on the other hand, would argue that allowing humans to determine the value of other species would have no more moral basis than allowing other species to determine the value of humans. It examines the most prominent, but certainly not the only, techniques available to supply policymakers with the information needed to implement efficient policy. Finding the total economic value of the service flows requires estimating three components of value: use value, option value, and nonuse or passive-use values.