Over the past two decades, the rapid development of China-Africa relationship has attracted tremendous attention worldwide. Particularly after the launch of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in 2000, along with the wider global theme that emphasised African development, the relationship between China and Africa has made headlines. Within this context, this chapter explores the understanding of China's foreign aid in Africa. It builds on the findings of earlier studies and shares in part with 'the "mainstream" assumptions that underdevelopment and poverty are objective, measureable phenomena, and that foreign aid, when designed and implemented appropriately in a supportive policy and institutional environment in recipient countries, can further development'. The chapter focuses on China's traditional foreign aid, which is the part of China's foreign aid that is solely funded by the foreign aid budget of the Chinese government, and is 'provided primarily to serve China's political interests'.