With the aim of improving our understanding of China's foreign aid in Africa, and promoting China's foreign aid outcomes, this chapter focuses on one of the fastest expanding but least explores aid practices in the contemporary world, China's foreign aid in Africa. At the beginning of China's foreign aid in Africa (1955–1978), it was found that with the purpose of breaking out of the diplomatic isolation created by the capitalist countries, and consolidating China's newly-founded regime, China's aid aimed at a desire to build friendship with African countries. Thus China's foreign aid settled on the principal aim of helping African countries achieve self-reliance. China needs to prioritise scientific research in the decision-making processes. After identifying the priority development areas for each African recipient countries, research needs to be taken into account in the allocation and packaging of aid projects and programs so that they accommodate the recipient countries' diverse domestic conditions.