In much of the literature, sustainable development (SD) is represented as involving the interaction of three domains of development, namely, the economic, the social, and the environmental. This chapter argues that an approach towards conceptualising a transformative Education for SD (ESD) that is relevant for Africa. It sets out such an ethical basis drawing on A. Sen’s idea of capability and Nancy Fraser’s understanding of global social justice. Concomitantly, the possibilities for transformative SD and for realising social and environmental justice will be seen to emerge as a consequence of policy enacted across the domains. Education and training as an example of a social institution can be seen to co-evolve with each of the aforementioned development domains. The chapter concludes with what is intended to be a non-reductionist account of SD and ESD that takes account of Africa’s position in the world, is sensitive to the variety of contexts represented by African continent, and engages with issues of power and inequality.