This chapter provides an analysis and a critique of Continental Education Strategy for Africa (CESA) in relation to a historical understanding of the changing nature of the postcolonial state in education. In terms of decision-making processes at a regional level, it is instructive to consider the nature of the various initiatives and actors who are involved in shaping policy. Despite the significance of civil society in relation to development on the continent, Agenda 2063 is relatively quiet on the role of civil society in national governance. CESA appears ambivalent on the role of civil society in education governance. The chapter considers the historical role of education systems in relation to reproducing dominant political interests in society and in reproducing forms of violence but also as a potential site for citizenship and peace education. The insertion of national education systems into global and regional regimes of governance has had contradictory effects.