This chapter considers the changing nature of debates about skills for development since colonial times. Education has had a contradictory relationship with the history of environmental degradation on the continent. The chapter explores the possibility, held out by global and regional agendas, that education and training are in the process of being repositioned in their relationship with the economic and environmental domains. A starting point for offering an alternative vision is in seeking an alternative to the idea of inclusive growth as a basis for conceiving skills for development. The chapter concludes with reconceptualising three of the priorities set out in Continental Education Strategy for Africa, namely, the emphasis on literacy and numeracy, and on science, mathematics, engineering and mathematics education on the other in the light of the new understanding of Sustainable Development and of social and environmental justice.