This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book focuses on the governance of education at different scales from the global to the local. It sets out the nature of the so-called ‘learning crisis’ facing education systems. The book outlines alternative ways of articulating the relationship between education systems and the economy based on a more expansive view of the economy to take account of the social dimensions of production and exchange and the effects of economic development on the natural environment and the need for citizenship education. It aims to set out an overall approach towards realising a transformative agenda in African education and training. The book discusses the central role of educators as potential agents of transformative change. If teachers are to play a transformative role in relation to education for sustainable development, a key focus must be the development of their own professional capabilities.